Honey is a sugar-rich syrup that is purported to be a beneficial sweetener because it contains natural sugar, rather than artificial sweeteners such as high-fructose corn syrup. While honey can be beneficial in some ways, one nutritional use for which honey is unlikely to be beneficial is increasing testosterone. Several nutrients can increase testosterone levels, but honey is not rich in these nutrients, so it is unlikely to impact your testosterone level. Consult a doctor prior to addressing any medical conditions, such as low testosterone.
One potential benefit of honey for increasing testosterone levels is that it contains no dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is a crucial nutrient that aids in healthy digestion, promotes feelings of fullness and can help stabilize blood sugar levels. However, research published in the December 1996 edition of “The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition” indicates that too much fiber can inhibit testosterone production. Thus, replacing fiber-rich foods with honey may aid in increasing your testosterone levels.
Honey contains no dietary fat, which can be helpful if you’re trying to cut fat and calories, but it’s detrimental for testosterone production. In addition to supplying energy and helping your body absorb vitamins, dietary fat is involved in hormone production. According to research published in the November 2004 issue of “International Journal of Sports Medicine,” increased fat intake can promote increased testosterone levels.
Honey is high in sugar, with more than 17 g in each 1 tbsp. serving. While sugar makes honey taste good and can provide energy, it can be detrimental for hormonal levels. Research performed in 2009 at Massachusetts General Hospital found that consuming sugar caused a reduction in testosterone levels, so honey is not a good food choice for enhancing testosterone release.
In addition to dietary fat, other nutrients can promote increased release of testosterone. Among them is magnesium, according to a study from the February 2009 edition of “Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis.” Unfortunately, honey is devoid of magnesium, so it can’t supply this testosterone-boosting benefit.
The National Football League ¨C the NFL ¨C is a league composed of the best football players in the world. Similar to other levels of football, the NFL uses an egg-shaped football, but the NFL has specific rules to the size, shape and materials used for the football. The Digest of Rules of the NFL explains the official size requirements for the football, along with other basic rules for playing the game.
The NFL has set measurement rules for the overall length and largest circumference at the center of the football. An official NFL football is slightly larger than high school or other professional leagues. The length should measure about 11 inches from tip to tip, and the in circumference at the center of the football should measure about 22 inches.
Overall weight and air pressure are specific in the NFL, too. The football and materials weighs about 14 to 15 oz., and is the ball is inflated to about 12.5 to 13.5 lbs. per square inch. These weight and air pressure measurements create consistency among the many footballs required in a game.
The NFL rules also govern the dimension of materials, the number of layers and the pattern of design. Four leather panels are weighed, measured and inspected for blemishes before being sewn together. The top two panels are sewn together with white leather laces. Inside the leather panels is a 3-ply VPU rubber bladder or interior lining that holds the air.
Before every NFL football game, the home club supplies 36 footballs for outdoor contests and 24 footballs for indoor ones. An additional 12 footballs are marked with the letter ¡°K,¡± and are used specifically for kicking. The referee inspects every football two hours before the game to ensure it meets the official size, weight and air pressure requirements.
For many kids, middle school is the place where the game of soccer goes from a recreational activity to something more serious and competitive. Typically, there are tryouts for positions, and coaches start to become more concerned with winning than having fun. A number of professional players, coaches and soccer experts believe there are a lot of good things about representing your middle school on the soccer field.
You get to stand up and be proud. “Playing for your school ties the academic to the athletic and allows you to play for something bigger than yourself: your school and community,” says former U.S. national team player Tony Sanneh. It gets you fit. “Instead of going home after school, you are out on the field, running and sweating and increasing your strength and stamina,” says Pierre Barrieu, fitness coach or the U.S. men’s national soccer team.
It builds unity. “Competing for victories and titles with my classmates gave me a sense of camaraderie I take pride in to this day,” says Chris Henderson, former U.S. national team player and current technical director for the Seattle Sounders. It creates memories. “I was the only player from school team to go on to play soccer in college, but those teammates were friends that I spent each day with during school, and are my friends to this day,” says former professional goalkeeper and current youth soccer coach Mike Ammann.
It’s a way to support your kids. “In middle school, the games are almost always nearby, so it’s a great way for parents to get out and cheer on their children,” says Sunil Gulati, president of U.S. Soccer. You have to study hard. “School teams usually require students to maintain a high grade-point average in order to compete, which can be a strong incentive,” says Michael Lewis, journalist and author of “Soccer for Dummies.”
It makes you budget your time. “Playing middle school soccer helps students learn how to better organize their time, which pays huge dividends in the long run,” says Sam Pierron, director of special projects for Sporting KC, a professional soccer team. You get more touches. “School teams usually train four or five days a week, which means more touches on the ball, and that’s always a good thing,” says U.S. national team midfielder Michael Bradley.
You lean on others. “In soccer, no one player can do it all by himself, so being a part of a team helps kids learn to rely on and trust one another,” says David Kammarman, director of soccer operations for the Los Angeles Galaxy. You get to be on the inside. “Being on any team is something special. There are always certain things that stay within the team and that teaches trust and honesty,” says U.S. national team coach Bob Bradley.
Free safety is one of the most physically and mentally demanding positions on the defensive side of the ball. These football players are asked to cover a lot of ground and have vital roles in defending against the passing and running games. They are arguably the most cerebral of the defending 11, tasked with diagnosing a play as it unfolds or before it begins, then getting in the right position to make the play.
Free safeties must be fast, athletic players with the ability to cover a lot of ground. Often tasked with covering the likes of speedy wide receivers or covering vast areas in zone coverages, the centerfielders of the defense must fly from sideline to sideline making plays in the passing game. Practice your footwork with various cone drills, working on backpedaling and coming out of your break to turn and run with a receiver. Good points to remember are to stay low while backpedaling, keep your nose over your toes, then open your hips to initiate your break out your backpedal.
Possessing the athletic ability to be in position to make plays is just one part of the game. Free safeties must also have the ball skills, lightning quick reaction time and soft hands to create turnovers with an interception. The tip drill is a classic standby for defensive backs coaches through the years. A coach will stand in line with two defensive players, spread out by 5 yards or more. The coach will throw a pass that the defender closest to coach will deflect in any direction and the second defensive back is charged with intercepting the pass. It is a simple drill that can transform a defense into a turnover machine. Free safeties are expected to make big plays when they have the ball in their hands, so sprint to the end zone every chance you get in practice.
Free safeties are required to be sure tacklers and an intimidating presence all over the field. Safeties must limit big plays, and as the last layer of defense, the safeties can be the difference between a modest gain for the offense and a play that goes for a score. Angle tackling drills are most beneficial for safeties, because they have to make plays from sideline to sideline. Pick an angle that will allow you to get your head in front of the ball carrier. Always make a tackle with your shoulders and keep your head up, or see what you are hitting, as some coaches preach. Finish the tackle by wrapping the ball carrier up while exploding through the ball carrier with your hips and driving with your legs.
A big part in becoming a great safety is being able to diagnose plays before they even begin. Watching film of an opponent can give you an idea of what the offense likes to do out of certain formations or you might discover a pre-snap read that will help you get in position to make a play. You can also find out if an opposing player has any tendencies, like what route they might run when facing a certain coverage look or how a quarterback might tip his hand before he throws the ball. The defense is always reacting to the offense, so they are always one step behind. Study up and try to level the playing field before the play even starts.
Youth football workouts must incorporate several elements. A program for young players must make the most out of limited practice and conditioning time while emphasizing safety. The workout should focus on strength development, cardio conditioning and agility training and should also include dedicated time for practicing position-specific drills and implementing game plans.
The shuttle run acquaints youth players with the start-and-stop explosiveness necessary in typical football plays. Players line up along one goal line, run full speed to the 10-yard line, stop, turn and then run back full speed to the initial goal line. They repeat the exercise, but this time they run to the 20-yard line and back. For the next shuttle run, they will go to the 30-yard line and back. The specific distances should be set according to age group ¨C players in the youngest divisions should run shorter distances. Use cones or markers to delineate the shuttle stations for your players.
Basic body weight exercises are extremely effective for developing functional strength and power in youth players at all age divisions. The exercises require little to no equipment. Pushups, pullups, situps and planks are all effective. Football-focused exercises like burpees, which provide foundational strength in both the upper and lower body, are ideal for youth players ages 10 or older.
Basic agility drills will develop crucial motor skills necessary to compete in football. Effective activities include ladder drills and zig zags. Ladder drills are simple. Place two agility ladders on the ground side-by-side, have the players line up at one end and then run through them, making sure each foot-fall lands within the boxes created by the ladders. For zig zags, place a series of cones separated by up to a yard of space and have players run through the cones in a back-and-forth pattern.
Football training for young players presents unique challenges, but the processes that support their safety will help reduce injury. During practice, teach the fundamentals for all drills and cap the duration of practices to a length appropriate for the age group. Be on the lookout for any and all signs of injury, however minor, as well as extraordinary fatigue or any level of dehydration.
Icebreakers are interactive games and activities designed to take the awkwardness out of a whole bunch of teenagers thrown together at a retreat or gathering. They help teens learn each other¡¯s name and get to know one another. Icebreakers also help teens find commonalities and ease the tension and anxiety of meeting new groups of people. Get the teenagers up, moving around and laughing as they break the ice with fun and games.
This activity challenges teenagers because they can¡¯t talk once it begins. Ensure there is enough space for all of the teens to line up. Instruct the group that they are to line up by birthday month and day, without talking or writing it down. You¡¯ll have to keep reminding them to remain quiet. They can use charades, hand signals or any other means of communicating. Don¡¯t tell them how to accomplish the task because part of the bonding comes from letting them figure it out.
You don¡¯t have to do much preparation ahead of time for this activity. Ask the teens to get in groups of four or five. Each person gets a scrap piece of paper large enough to write down two unbelievable facts and one believable truth, without allowing anyone to see their answers. When all participants have their responses, one person in each group reads the three statements to their group. The group then quickly discusses and decides which ¡°fact¡± is the fiction. If the group finds the fiction, the author applauds the group. If the author fools the group, then the group applauds the author. The activity continues until each person has a turn to fool the group.
Confusion and laughter builds as they learn each other¡¯s names. It works best when the teens are sitting or standing in circles of five to 10. The kids tend to get bored waiting for their turn if they¡¯re in groups larger than 10. The group leader begins by saying, ¡°My name is (name) and this is my nose¡± and points to a different body part. The person to the right repeats, ¡°This is (previous name) and this is my nose¡± and points to the same body part the previous person indicated. Then he adds, ¡°My name is (name) and this is my (names another body part while pointing to yet a different part).¡± This continues around the circle accumulating names and body parts, until the person at the end of the circle has to name all of the people and their body parts along with their own name.
You will need to prepare a handout with three columns for this activity. In the first column, put a list for the teen to name various favorite things like movies, songs, artist, color and food. In the middle column is the ¡°self¡± column for them to write an answer to each of the favorites. The last column is for the written answers of their new friends. Give the teens a set amount of time — use a timer — to answer the questions in the ¡°self¡± column. Once everyone has their answers, set the timer again and instruct the participants to mingle around the room looking for others who have the same answers. When they find someone who shares their same favorite, that person puts their name in the third column. At the end of the time, you can give a prize to the person who found the most matches. The teens now have a list of new friends who share their interests.
Volleyball was created by William G. Morgan in 1895, although the sport has changed drastically since. Regardless of those changes, volleyball tryouts should go back to the basics. Players excel in different roles, so incorporate drills that showcase each role, and vary the difficulty level throughout the drills.
To evaluate basic passing skills, have the players line up. Toss the ball and have players practice bumping the ball back to you. To increase the difficulty, have three people ready to toss balls. Toss the first ball long, the second one short and the third high. Have players move horizontally across the court to receive.
Divide the players so half are on each side of the court. Have players practice serving, and keep track of how many balls out of 10 are served in bounds. To determine players’ abilities to place the serve, place hula hoops on one side of the court. Place two in the back court and three on the front row. Have players take turns serving to the different hula hoop positions.
Have players rotate through the three hitting positions: strong, weak, and middle. Set the ball to a player on the strong side, then have them hit and then move to middle. Continue until all players have hit in all three positions.
Have players face each other in two lines. Have players set to each other and then move to the back of the line. Make sure the players hand-set only, keeping it going as long as possible.
This drill is typically a warmup for teams before matches. It incorporates a bump, set, and spike, focusing on ball control. Pair off players, and have the first player toss the ball to the second player. Player two then bumps the ball back. Then, player one sets it and player two spikes it. The drill is continuous.
Running is a great workout because it burns a lot of calories quickly. A 150-pound person will burn 748 calories during an hour of running at a nine-minute mile pace. But, running for a long time can be tiring. Unfortunately, there is no quick fix for this problem. Conditioning is the only way to be able to run for a longer period of time without getting tired. Lay out a running plan and follow it. As you get into shape and your body gets used to running, you will find that you can run a lot without getting tired.
Plan a running program. Make sure you schedule running time into your week. When beginning, you should aim to do 30 minutes three to five times a week.
Start slow. Don’t overdo it in the beginning because this can lead to injuries. Run for 20 minutes, three times a week.
Increase your running time, and run more often once you are able to comfortably run for 20 minutes, three times a week.
Walk if you feel tired. Because overexertion is the leading cause of running injuries, you need to be careful not to push yourself too hard. If you feel any pain, stop and walk.
Take deep slow breaths. When you are running, you should be working hard and feel tired, but you should still be able to speak a few words at a time in between breaths.
Stretch after you run. Your legs will be tired when you first start your training program, but as your body gets used to using those muscles, the soreness should subside.
Vary your speed. Interval training refers to alternating between working really hard and recovering. Boost your endurance by alternating between running really fast for 30 seconds and then slowing to a jog for a minute. Also, go for a short but quick-paced run once or twice a week.
Avoid running uphill if you feel extremely fatigued or sore. But, if you do have the energy, running uphill will strengthen your legs, which will help you run longer distances without tiring.
Fat thighs put a damper on visions of sporting new swimwear at the beach or a friend’s pool party. If a gathering is on the horizon and you want to create slender thighs fast, you have to be very disciplined and be willing to make sacrifices at the dinner table. Exercise is another big part of this game plan. To avoid gaining muscle, you simply need to eliminate heavy weight training from the equation.
Cut back on calories to produce a deficit and promote weight loss through your body as a whole. Losing weight in one place is called spot reduction, which is impossible. Reduce your daily intake by 1,000 calories, and you can quickly lose 2 lbs. a week.
Stock your kitchen with foods that have a low energy density. Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meats and fish fall into this category. Low energy density foods have a lot of volume, but not a lot of calories. Eat nothing but low energy density foods to achieve the fastest results.
Start your day with breakfast to boost your metabolism and satisfy your hunger. Have something quick if you are in a hurry, such as half of a whole grain bagel with low-fat cream cheese. Prepare something more elaborate if you have time, such as an omelet with chopped vegetables and salsa.
Graze throughout the day to keep your energy levels up, appetite down and metabolism high. Eat small meals every two to three hours after you finish your breakfast. Balance each meal with a portion of protein and carbs. Hummus on rye bread with lettuce and tomato is a meal, for example.
Drink water throughout the day instead of sugary beverages. Beer, wine, mixed drinks, soda, fruit punch and milkshakes all contain high amounts of sugar and/or fat. Water, on the other hand, is calorie-free and also helps hydrate your body. Have a big glass with your meals to further prevent overeating.
Perform cardiovascular exercise to melt away thigh pounds. Choose a form that involves the thighs, such as running, indoor cycling, elliptical training, stair-climbing or versa climbing. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends 60 to 90 minutes of exercise performed five days a week to effectively lose weight. Spend a majority of this time doing intervals — simply bounce back and forth from a fast to slow intensity. This will burn a high amount of calories and keep your metabolism elevated once you are done.
In football, players frequently hit, collide with and tackle each other in an effort to achieve the game¡¯s objectives. While most tackles fall within the rules of the game, a few are illegal and will incur a penalty or, if the offending player has committed more than one illegal tackle during a game, immediate ejection.
Although many tackles during a football game involve full body-to-body contact, some involve players grabbing onto any part of the opponent that¡¯s accessible, including jerseys, shoes and pant legs, which is permitted by the rules of the game. However, making a tackle while touching any part of an opponent¡¯s face mask is illegal and, when called, results in a penalty against the offending player and team. At the time of publication, facemask penalties incur a 15-yard penalty. Prior to 2008, facemask penalties in the NFL and college football fell into two categories: intentional and unintentional. Intentional penalties were assessed 15 yards, while unintentional ones earned a five-yard penalty.
Football players are allowed to grab onto almost any part of a ball carrier while attempting to make a tackle, but not by the back of the jersey¡¯s collar or shoulder pads. This tackle is known as a ¡°horse collar¡± tackle and is illegal. This form of tackling rose to infamy during the 2004 NFL season when Dallas Cowboy safety Roy Williams regularly made these tackles, which resulted in serious injuries to at least four opponents during that season. NFL owners voted to outlaw the tackling maneuver prior to the 2005 season and the college and high school levels followed suit in 2008 and 2009. At each level, the ¡°horse collar¡± tackle earns a 15-yard penalty against the offending team.
Using the top of the helmet, with the face down, to make initial contact on an opposing player while attempting to make a tackle is illegal at all levels of football. Offending teams are penalized with a 15-yard penalty when these tackles occur. However, tackles in which the face side of the helmet is used to make initial contact are legal. Referees judge the legality of this type of tackle by whether the tackler¡¯s head is in an upright position or not.
Quarterbacks, punters and placekickers are protected from being hit once the ball has left their possession or while they are in the process of kicking. Tackles or hits made on a quarterback after he has thrown a pass or handed the ball off are deemed late hits and are punished with a 15-yard penalty. Placekickers and punters may not be tackled or hit while they are in the process of kicking or punting. The only exception to this rule is if the kick is blocked by a defender while the kicker is in the process of kicking. These types of hits and tackles are legal.